The HIV epidemic is strongly concentrated to vulnerable populations, like injecting drug users, sex employees and prisoners. In addition to those groups, the epidemic is spreading among other weak groups like youth, migrants and truck drivers. About three-quarters of the new HIV diagnoses is amongst unemployed individuals. Currently the two main routes of HIV transmission in Kazakhstan are injecting drug use and sexual transmission. Pregnancy has not been proven to have any negative effects on women with asymptomatic HIV infection . It seems that superior HIV infection, however, can enhance the risk for spontaneous abortion or premature birth .
Vertical transmission of HIV from mom-to-child accounts for the overwhelming majority of the infections among the youngsters. Mother-to-child HIV transmission occurs intrauterine, intra-partum and during breastfeeding.
Kazakhstan Women Pictures
With antiretroviral treatment leading to low viral load, no breastfeeding and elective Caesarean the HIV transmission rate to the child could be decreased to zero–2% . Elective Caesareans are most necessary for ladies with excessive HIV viral masses on the time of supply. The pregnant women in Semey have poor information about specific mom-to-child HIV transmission and do not know concerning the means of reducing mother-to-youngster HIV an infection.
The compilation of the housing register was a part of the 1999 and 2009 National Population Surveys. The first wave was performed in 2001 by the Kazakhstan Agency on Statistics, but information on labour market tenure was first collected in the 2006 wave of the survey. In explaining the patterns of casual self-employment, we also give attention to the ethnic dimension .
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Without antiretroviral therapy, the risk of an contaminated woman transmitting the virus to her child is between sixteen and 40%. Timely administration of antiretroviral drugs kazakhstan woman to the HIV contaminated pregnant woman and her newborn significantly reduces the risk of mother-to-child transmission .
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As Table4 demonstrates, the biggest percentage decrease in rates of informality across ethnic groups was for Europeans. Whilst informality rates fell for Kazakh and European women, it rose from forty eight% in 2006 to fifty three% in 2009 amongst minority women . Informality declined amongst Kazakh men (fifty seven% to forty nine%) but rose amongst minority ethnic men (46% to forty nine%) over the 5-yr period. Overall, the ethnic dimension of self-employment signifies the dominance of formal self-employment amongst Europeans. Moreover, it demonstrates that minority women have markedly higher informality rates in instances of recession. The goal of this paper is to determine components that form the informality choice amongst self-employed women and men.
Controlling for pattern selection bias, we find that informality propensities are affected by age, place of residence, occupation and human capital. We additionally discover strong evidence that supports the view that the financial disaster considerably elevated the non-European minority group’s informality propensities, from which they’ve but to recover. Noticeable differences exist in the likelihood of getting into self-employment for ethnic minorities. The greater propensity to be self-employed for ethnic minorities may be attributed to unobserved variations between ethnic teams (Parker 2004, pp. 123–124). In general, for both genders, the coefficients of being a professional, hours of labor and tenure are significantly negative.
Spatial variations in self-employment propensities recommend that, for men, these propensities are adverse in urban areas and the two metropolis locations with greater-than-average ranges of income, Almaty and Astana. These findings could also be defined by the housing bubble, which had over-stimulated the financial system in urban locations and, in turn, led rural–city migrants to anticipate extra everlasting paid employment than was actually obtainable. It can be plausible to assume that lease is more expensive in urban locations, as asserted by Parker (2004, pp. 99–102). The estimated impact of the exclusion restriction is positive and vital, suggesting that people with earlier self-employment experience have a higher tendency to decide on the self-employed sector. In accordance with the ILO, the respondent is considered employed if he/she labored for at least one hour in the past seven days and received some form of monetary fee or cost in kind. Interviews had been conducted in all 14 areas of the nation, together with the capital city, Astana, and the monetary capital, Almaty. The survey collects data on a national sample of households randomly chosen from a register of dwellings primarily based on the territorial division of the housing register to ensure that every family has an equal probability of being selected.
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The aim of the study was to judge present information, threat behaviour and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing concerning HIV/AIDS amongst pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan. This is essential, contemplating that the gateway for prevention of mother-to-youngster transmission is voluntary counselling and testing for HIV. In current years efforts has been made to cover all pregnant women with full prevention services and the mom-to-child prevention is a big part of the Kazakhstan HIV programme . In 2005 the antenatal care coverage were estimated to 91% and the number of women counselled on prevention of mom-to-youngster transmission companies had been . The number of HIV contaminated women was estimated to fewer than 500 and of those 47 (9%) obtained antiretroviral therapy for PMTCT . In Kazakhstan, persons are estimated to reside with HIV/AIDS which implies a prevalence of 0.1–0.2% .
In addition to the questionnaires, we interviewed 21 of the study individuals. In all interviews an interpreter was needed; due to this a neighborhood pupil was always current to help us to ask questions and to take notes. The questionnaires had been translated to Kazakh and Russian and the women were given questionnaires within the language they most popular. The study was performed between June 14 and July 25, 2007 in Semey, Kazakhstan. We collected 226 questionnaires from a consecutive pattern of pregnant women attending 4 totally different antenatal clinics at totally different components of the city. During a yr there are around 1000 pregnancies in Semey adopted at 23 antenatal clinics. At the included clinics 520 pregnant women were registered on the time of the research.
However, most of the women in Semey were constructive to prevention strategies for mother-to-child transmission after hearing about it. Central Asia has one of the quickly rising HIV prevalence on the planet. The aim of this research was to gauge current data, risk behaviour and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing concerning HIV/AIDS among pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan. 15Gavrilovic et al. argued that there was inadequate provision of reasonably priced child care, which, in flip, has “constrained women from taking up earnings-generating activities” (p. 27). 7Kalyuzhnova and Nygaard cast doubt on the flexibility of the Kazakh authorities to pick out the ‘right’ locations to allocate sources through the state financial autos for the purpose of financial diversification. Kazakhstan, over the interval 2006–2011, skilled a twelve per cent reduction in informality ranges amongst self-employed men . We first estimate the determinants of entry into informal self-employment.
Thirteen women didn’t reply the question about their age; due to this fact these women have been excluded when we referred our results to age. Parity ranged from 0 to 4 youngsters, with a imply of 0.68 and a median of 1 child. The participation in the research was voluntary with knowledgeable consent. The questionnaire was nameless with no registration of names, medical data or different personal information. In our manuscript it isn’t possible to establish individual patients. We have a written decision from the Head of the Ethical Committee at Semey, Kazakhstan that no additional ethical review is required.
With the nameless design and no registration of personal sensitive data, the study doesn’t have to be reviewed by the Swedish Ethical Committee according to their guidelines. No information was collected from the women who refused to take part. The women were knowledgeable that their participation and the completion of the questionnaire were completely voluntarily and that they were free not to reply the questions they discovered too personal. The info given could be stored confidentially and no names or figuring out info would appear in publications.